Friday, April 20, 2007

Chapter 9-The Framing of Movies

What would the American society be without the invention of the movie?? i think that without the invention of the movie theater the world would be at an unmistakable lost. Movies generate a form of entertainment that satisfies many. The creation of the motion picture arised in the late 1800's when Thomas Edison created the Kientoscope. Following the Kinetoscope was the magnificent invention of the Nickelodeon. The Nickelodeon was a magnificent screening of a projector that played movies in theaters. The Nickelodeon gained popularity in societies all over and it rose to be very popular. "It June 1905 an entruper in Pittsburgh set up a cheap storefront theater showing films and called it the Nickelodeon and by the beginning of 1907 there were 2,500 according to the new entertainment paper variety. In November of that year the article "The Saturday evening post" put the number of Nickelodeons at between 4000 and 5000 and calculated that just the expenses, they had a weekly attendance of at least 16 million. the nickelodeons were highly profitable" (Starr pg 303). It is evident from the quote taken from Paul Starr's "The Creation Of The Media" That the creation of the Nickelodeon was a ultimate success. Without this invention America would not be the same. i believe that Thomas Edison is the person who should take the most credit for the innovations of the wonderful Motion Picture.

Thursday, April 19, 2007


According to Social Photography by Lewis W. Hine, "To the range of advertising there is no limit, and where all are tooting the loud bazoo, the problem of any one making himself heard is no slight one. Advertising is art; it is literature; it is invention. Failure is its one cardinal sin".

My opinion about this quote is that advertising is an idea that never stops. This quote also states that advertising can be used for corruption. Advertising is a form that expresses itself. This quote means that advertising has everything to do with the image of a company. If a company doesn't have the right advertising for a product, then the product would fail in the competitive market. This quote means that advertising is a language that should be understood by people.


"The social origins of motion pictures were a critical early influence on their path to development. Whereas newspapers and magazines had begun among the elite and evolved in a more popular direction, movies acquired a lowbrow image at an early point in their history and faced a challenge in achieving respectability."

The working class immigrant communities in America were the reason for its popularization. This was a popular form of entertainment. Young adults loved going to the shows because it provided an outlet from the dirty factories and hard lives. Nickelodeons provided a source of entertainment, education, and a source of imagination.

Life - Nursery Tales

This Nursery tales tells a story how different people around the city, gather together to fight for change in there city. The group of people going to tell the people of city of the trouble run into Mr. Boss, or in other words government who misleads them to a "machine" which he throws them into so they cannot warn the city.

I believe this is showing how people of the time, who try to make a change in the world but there trust in the government who mislead them and got them to basically keep quiet so the masses would not realize what a select few have. The author does it in a nursery tale instead of straight out for what I believe to be creative, reach a different audience and maybe sneak it through without the government seeing it because its a "children book".

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Flashes From the Slums

In Flashes from the Slums, Jacob Riis a police reporter from 1888 leads around reporters from the New York Sun. These reporters are taking pictures in the evening and night. The purpose of this for Jacob Riis, was "besides the interest in taking of the pictures, was the collection of a series of views for magic lantern slides, showing, as no more description could, the misery and vice that he had noticed..."in the slums of New York City. (Riis) Riis' graphic images such as the Growler Gang to the left were a bunch of misplaced youths who would just drink their money away and would luckily find a place to stay overnight. Photographs such as this were used to persuade and engage "the emotions of society to make a social or olitical argument "that could "easily provoke strong feeling of outrage or sympathy" that could be used to facilitate social persuasion for the betterment of society. Other pictures that Riis features are of tenement houses and the "misery and destitution" of those who inhabit them. (Riis) This article by Riis and the photographs taken quickly became a powerful tool for "social reform and mass persuasion."

The Power of Advertising and How it Can Go ALL Wrong

In Richard Connells' "All Wrong" a young man by the name of T.D. A. Marchbanks was visiting his Uncle in New York City for the very first time. Unfortunately, after his uncle had picked him up he had to run back to work so he would not get in trouble. He explains to Marchbanks that after he is done at the Custom House to take the Subway to Columbia University where he can meet him there. Amazingly, when Marchbanks gets on the subway he is scared to look around so he reads the numerous advertisements posted in the train. By the time he reads all of the advertisements he feels that all of these advertisements are true and happening to him simultaneously. So he becomes nervous and sick getting off the subway at Columbia University. It is there where he sees his last advertisement and the rest of his life flash away as he collapses and dies. Whats amazing about Connells' short story is the rate of advertising that was being done in the city and how overwhelming it could be for a man who has never seen it. Marchbanks actually felt that he was sick, losing his teeth, and had an pneumonia because of these advertisements because nobody had ever explained that they were just trying to persuade you to buy their products. Ultimately, Connels article depicts the power of the mass media and advertising business. It displays how a few advertisements and the sheer power of imagery can bring a man to his downfall.

Starr Chp 8: Liberal Turn of the Twenties

The nineteen twenties in United States history were a time of liberalism after WWI. Also known as the roaring twenties, this decade saw the "breakdown of Victorian conventions in manners, morals, the arts, and the growing dominance of modern, liberal ideas in intellectual life and urban culture." (Starr 286) At this time the government did little to extend economic regulation and other social programs, but this was the time when Congress and the courts started to develop the legal framework for free speech. Culturally, in society there were three main changes occuring. The first was the battle over censorship. As seen in the picture to the left these skirts were the new fashion statement as women started to go to beauty saloons and strip off their layers of traditional clothing. Second was the openness about sexual retience. For the first time this was a topic that could be discussed out in the open. Last, music and the arts grew like never before. The twenties were also known as the Jazz Age and people filled dance halls with new and open ideas of promiscuity. Ultimately, the traditional Victorian ways and ideas of old censorhip were "not able to withstand the onslaught" of changing cultural ideas and institutions.(Starr 289)

The House of Dreams

In Jane Addams "House of Dreams" nickelodeons and movie theaters "can satisfy that craving for a conception of life higher than that which the actual world offers them." (Adams 76) What she means by this is that these theaters become a reality for the youth and other ongoers that attend the shows. They provide mystery, drama, romance, and provide an ultimate escape from reality and the real world. Unfortunately, the theaters did not always provide a positive atmosphere or show that would influence the working class youth in the early 1900's. An example was when one boy would steal money from his mother every week to procure movie tickets. (Adams 81) Also, these youthful people would imitate the characters seen in the shows and feel that the way these fictional characters acted were acceptable; so now they could act the same way. Society did not agree with the negative influence that the movies were having on their youth. They felt that movies brought violence, crime, moral ambiguities and corruption of the youth in society and that was morally unacceptable. (Adams 79)

Tuesday, April 17, 2007

The Editor With the "White Spats"

The editor with the "White Sparks' is a text that shows the true form of the everyday happenings of a news room. In any form of mainstream media, integrity, truth, honesty, and good reporting can and will be compromised at times for the sake of money. People who have no experience will sometimes be the one who tell you how to do your job, and the truth is not always the most interesting or, even important thing when doing an editorial.

In this Story the editor is a man who has no exereince, in the text it say's " The only name that was known to the public was the name of the editor with the white spats, who never wrote anything, but who was supposed to guide the "Brainstorm" of the high dome thinkers who emitted a more or less luminous stream of gray matter at so much per week."

Although the writer with the Bulging brow writes an amazing editorial pertaining to the future malnurishment of our children, his editorial is rejected, because it may insight conflict with sponsor's. So although this Writer put so much time energy and effort into this work he must throw it away to the wings in order to appease the money distributes, his moment to shine has passed and as always the editor's name will be the only one that receives any praise, as the Thick Browed writer will fade back into the jumble of journalist, that must put in meaningless work that does not effect advertising money.

Motion Pictures To Make Good Citizens

In the year 1912 "The civic use of motion picture had now been established", and with this new found way to grab peoples attention, many organizations used it as a chance to educate the common American. Motion pictures were being used to show the true story of child labor, prison labor, and even as an added assistant when electing new officials into office.

"The Average daily attendance at the motion pictures of the country was estimated at 5 million". It was felt that it was easier to connect with Viewers through motion pictures since they would have facts backed up with Visual effects, and that the effect from "Vivid preachments as motion pictures is often deeper than those of editorials or sermons".

"people involved in motion pictures could also help to deter crime. " In los Angeles a motion picture camera man took clear pictures of a riot in front of the federal building on june 25, and the pictured evidence caused fines for some of the rioters."

" some of the first reality series were displayed in motion pictures, for example " The awakening of John Bond". "This Film produced by the Edison company, shows the bad housing conditions that, together with poverty, form the right and left hands of the white plague's strangle grip. John Boyd is the tenement house owner who is responsible for the bad housing and for the high rents that contribute to poverty. he refuses to have pity on a family in his house ravaged by tuberculosis until his own wife contracts the disease indirectly through his fault. then he awakens and helps stamp out the plauge."

Media Critics

A police report by New York City authorities stated that “the conditions found to exist are such as to attach to cheap and impermanent places of amusement, to wit: poor sanitation, dangerous overcrowding, and inadequate protection from fire or panic. Despite the foul smells, poor ventilation, and frequent breakdowns in projection, investigators found overflow crowds in a majority of theaters.” According to Czitron. Some complained of the foul smells in the theaters that the manager would try to cover up with deodorizers and rowdy atmosphere which was actually everyday living conditions for the audience. “The darkness of the theater , argued some doctors and social workers, caused eye strain and related disorders: “Intense ocular and cerebral weariness, a sort of dazed ‘good-for-nothing’ feeling, lack of energy, or appetite, etc,” as one physician put it.” Czitrom.

This quote from Early Motion Pictures, written by Daniel Czitrom , shows that even though the nickelodeons were a great and fun place to be, some felt that they were a danger to the community. They even came up to thinking that they can cause health probelms because of the theaters darkness. Even though these theaters were overcrowded, loud and smelled of a foul odor, this was how its audience lived their everyday lives in there tenament apartments. To the immgrants there was actually no problem at all.

Monday, April 16, 2007

Chapter 8-The Rediscovery of The First Amendment

In my opinion and prehaps in the opinions of many, the first amendment is if not the most, one of the most important amendment. Without this amendment that advocated freedom of speech , many of us would not be where we are today, in that sense communications and mass media would not exist. in the basic formulas of the equations that the mass media creates for individuals , includes freedom of speech. Without freedom of speech mass media would not exist. "It was during the progressive era, particularly between 1910 and 1917 that a free speech movement began to stir and writers and artists in rebellion against genteel culture discovered a common cause with radical dissenters on the left in the battle against censorship. A new Generation of young intellectuals , convinced that America's old Puritan "Hypocrisy stood in the way of honest understanding and full enjoyment of life, sought to open up discussion of sex, birth control, and forbidden subjects" (Starr pg 268). It is evident from the quote above presented from Paul Starr's "The Creation of the Media" that freedom of speech was something that many undoubtedly feared. it seems as if America was a country that lived by censorship. the act of censorship in my opinion creates a division among society, because many cater to the rules and regulations of censorship that our government feeds us while others rebel against censorship in society. in a sense i am glad that the first amendment was never destroyed..without it we just would be a society living for rebellion

Early Motion Pictures

In The Packet "Early Motion Pictures" By Daniel Czitrom the very interesting history of motion picture photography is discussed. It i said that the great beginnings of this innovation was in 1890. It pretty much all began with the Kinetograph. The Kinetograph provided brief images of unenlarged 35mm black and white motion pictures. this was a very popular thing, it allowed many individuals in society for just a mere penny to view a short flim. The kinetograph only lasted until the 1900's. soon after the movie theater arised or as many would say the Nickelodeon. the movie theater became an instant attraction that drew many in s society. The movie house was something like no one had seen before. This is why i believe that it sparked such controversy among many crities in society who undoubtedly believed that movies were poisoning the minds of are children. another intersiting negative idea that was posed by doctors i society was the fact that they believed that attending the movies was causing health problems. "the darkness of the nicklodean theater argured some doctors and social workers caused eye strain and related he disorders" ( czitrom pg 190). this is just example of how things were as the the movie theater was on the rise. the rise of the movie theater was definably influential to the growth of communications today.